The following items have been selected into the Yunnan Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage List:
1. Zhuang fireweed textile skills
Approved in 2009, according to reports, as early as the early Ming Dynasty, people of the Zhuang ethnic group made fire grass quilts in Qiubei. Yunnan does not produce cotton. The diligent and intelligent women of the Qiubei Zhuang family use "fire grass," a sweet herb plant called "mantail" in Zhuang language, for cotton.
Fire grass leaves are picked from the mountains in August each year. The collected fire grass leaves are rinsed with water and placed in a dustpan. Then, while the moisture is not dry, the leaves are picked from the roots and feet to remove the cotton-like parts intact. Next, one by one, rub the fireweed thread on the thigh of even thickness, and then wrap it into a thread after it has dried. When weaving firegrass quilt, use twine as warp thread, and use firegrass thread to shuttle back and forth on the twine. The twine used for weaving firegrass quilt is also made of locally grown hemp. The process of making the hemp thread is more complicated. After more than a dozen processes, such as cutting hemp, removing the skin, removing the outer skin, twisting the thread, rubbing the thread, boiling the thread (using plant ash), washing the thread, and drying it, it can be put on the shelf. To weave a fire grass quilt, it takes about two to three months and more than ten fire grass leaves.
Fireweed used to be used as a dowry and daily necessities, but now it has been replaced by quilts. The most complete fireweed weaving skills is undoubtedly in Xiaoxilong Village, Jinping Town, Qiubei County. In August 2009, the fire grass of the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County was named the second batch of intangible cultural heritage of Yunnan Province by the People's Government of Yunnan Province and the Provincial Department of Culture. He Meifen, who was born in Xiaoxilong Village, Mubai Village Committee, Pingzhai Township, Qiubei County in June 1951, is the inheritor of the fire grass quilt of the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County. She is recognized locally as a master of "fire grass quilt" weaving. Boldly innovate on the basis of the traditional fireweed quilt, dye the fireweed thread into colored (red, blue, purple, yellow, green, etc.) with the vegetable dyes of the Zhuang "March 3" dyed rice. Arranged in a certain order, weaving a variety of continuous patterns, simple and elegant, full of change. Fireweed is spun from pure natural plants through traditional craftsmanship, and it has continued the integrity and authenticity of history. It is an example of the origin and evolution of life products (quilts) that protect the body from the cold in the early days. It is not only a practical handicraft, but also a carrier of the traditional culture of the Zhuang nationality. It embodies the wisdom of the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality.
2. The making skills of Yao nationality's blue indigo
Approved in 2009, the Qiubei Yao nationality has a long history of indigo manufacturing. According to the Republic of China "Wanqiu County Chronicles and Races in Vimo Prefecture", "Qiu Bei Yao people migrated to live in the border of Guangxi, Guizhou and Guangxi in the early Ming... The production of Landian of Yao nationality is mainly distributed in Chongtan Village, Jinping Town, and Yaptang Village, Wenliu Township in Qiubei County. It has been more than 600 years. Lonicera edulis uses pure natural indigo plants as raw materials and is made with a unique and traditional production method. It is a rare environmentally friendly dye with solid and pure color, pleasant fragrance, and anti-corrosion and anti-moth effects. It is the first choice for general dyeing, tie dyeing and batik dyeing in modern life. It can also be used as a cyanine pigment in traditional Chinese painting and is favored by Chinese painters. The craftsmanship of Lan Indigo has been passed down as an excellent traditional culture for hundreds of years, and it is the crystallization of the hard work and wisdom of the Chinese nation. In 2009, the craftsmanship of the Yao nationality's blue indigo production was rated as provincial intangible cultural heritage.
The craftsmanship of blue indigo is very particular. Indigo is generally planted in May and June when there is plenty of rain, and can be harvested in August and September. The specific method for making L. indigo juice is to harvest the planted L. indigo trees and soak them in a special "Lindigo cellar" for five days and five nights. When the water in the cellar turns blue and emits a clear fragrance of indigo, the branches and leaves of the indigo are taken out with a wooden nail rake and an indigo filter. Sprinkle an appropriate amount of fine lime powder into the indigo cellar and stir vigorously with a stirring rod. After about an hour of operation, a large amount of green foam floats on the surface of the water and stops. Seal the cellar opening with banana leaves, straw, etc. to prevent it from being washed out in rain. Two days later, lime and indigo hydrate and precipitate, that is, the waste water at the upper end of the pit is discharged, and the blue indigo juice (semi-solid) remaining at the bottom of the pit is discharged in the lower storage pit for 3 to 5 days. Shovel the indigo paste into the storage tank and move it home for later use. When dyeing the fabric, just add appropriate amount of cold water and white wine to dilute the indigo dyeing vat. Traditional printing and dyeing are divided into cold dyeing and hot dyeing; the colors are generally black, dark blue (commonly known as navy blue) and purple red (commonly known as ocean blue). Dyeing methods generally include general dyeing, batik and tie dyeing. Traditional indigo-making tools and facilities include wooden rakes, filter baskets, stir bars, indigo dyeing vats and indigo kilns.
3. Xianzi Dance of the Yi People
Approved in 2013, among the many ethnic cultures, the most representative and universal cultural activity that has continued to this day is the intangible cultural heritage of Yunnan Province Yi Xianzi Dance. Old cattle scratching itches, chickens eating food, flies rubbing their feet... these interesting words are the names of the Xianzi dance steps of the Yi people in Qiubei County. On weekdays, the urban and rural people use the wheat field or leisure square as the stage. The blazing bonfire is lit, the clank strings are bounced, men, women, and children jump up. When the interest reaches its climax, the entire venue is full of people, holding hands and jumping like long dragons, shouting. Catharsis. Jiang Zilong, a well-known Chinese writer who has been to Qiubeipuzheheixianrendong village, exclaimed in this article: "The bonfire party after dinner... regardless of age, regardless of ethnicity, everyone is infected by the atmosphere... Enjoy and dance. I don’t know where this eve is, where am I..." The unique charm of Qiubei Yi people’s string dance is revealed in the words.
General Situation of Xianzi Dance of Yi People in Qiubei
The Yi people in Qiubei have four branches: Hei Yi, Bula, Sani, and Bo. The Yi people in the county have a population of nearly 100,000, distributed in towns such as Shupi, Shede, Shuanglongying, Badaoshao, and Tijiao. As long as there is a place where the Yi people live, there is a melodious Yi Xianzi, and as long as there is a Yi Xianzi village, there is a colorful Yi Xianzi dance. For thousands of years, Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance has continued and developed continuously with its unique artistic charm. Nowadays, it is not only a unique folk dance of the Yi ethnic group, but also widely loved and participated by people of all ethnic groups.
It is understood that the Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance has a history of more than 500 years. There are folks: "It's people who don't beat strings and live in vain for decades.", "My brother's string is ringing, and Amei's feet are itchy." "Little string is a piece of firewood, love in my heart; clothes are worn out. There are a few wonderful and exaggerated proverbs such as this piece of wood for life and death. According to preliminary statistics, the Yi Xianzi dance routines in Qiubei County include: one-step chord, two-step chord, three-step chord, two stomping, small four steps, vibrating chord, bee picking flowers, squatting, and chicken eating. There are 24 kinds of, dragonfly, elder bull scratching, horse racing, dog pounding, cross piercing, dragon tail waving, eagle wings spreading, flies rubbing feet, hooking feet dancing, fighting feet, dragging feet. The basic rhythms are: knee bends, stepped, jumped, stomped, tipped, feet tremble, and the hips are moved by the belt to move the whole body back and forth. The formation includes round, vertical, horizontal, inner eight characters, string flowers, etc. Under normal circumstances, men play strings and women have hands on their hips or clap their palms.
The Qiubei Yi Xianzi piano body is made of toon tree, camphor wood, walnut tree veneer, and it is also made of splinter board (thin pine wood). The head of the piano is mostly carved into a dragon head decorated with dragon whiskers, the front panel of the piano is carved with dragons and phoenixes, and some even have a small round mirror in the middle of the piano surface. When the boys held the piano and played, the dragon's whiskers moved up and down, the round mirror was gleaming, and the dragons and phoenix danced vividly. The Qiubei Yi people’s Xianzi has a wide range of music, and you can play Xianzi dance music with any "taste" as the main tone (the folks call it "no root tone"). The timbre of Qiubei Yi Xianzi is pleasant and pleasant, with crisp high-pitched, bright mid-range and full bass. The Yueqin played with picks is mainly played by playing, picking, and rolling with the right hand. Sometimes it also uses pinching, sweeping, etc., and has a unique effect of "scraping" techniques. The left hand has techniques such as pressing, shaking, sliding, and singing. The Qiubei Yi string has eleven or twelve grades on the neck and panel. There are four open strings and one set of two strings. The strings are tuned into the same tone and set according to the relationship of five degrees. The tone is sharp and crisp. When playing, use the pluck to pluck the strings, supplemented by the lightness of the fingers, and emit a crisp and loud decorative sound and portamento. The playing technique varies from person to person, but the traditional method of playing is to pluck the strings with the nail of the right middle finger (or index finger). Now it is changed to a horn piece, bamboo piece or plastic pluck, which increases the volume and improves Tones, enhanced brightness.
The Main Features of Xianzi Dance of Yi Nationality in Qiubei
Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance is a unique form of cultural entertainment formed by the Yi people in the long-term farming life and rice culture under the unique natural landscape and cultural and historical background of Qiubei. It has a wide range of mass and folk inheritance. The Xianzi Dance of the Yi people in Qiubei showcases the art of Yi people’s music, singing and dancing, and is a carrier for the Yi people to exchange emotions freely. "Dancing string dance" is an important activity for Yi people to choose their spouses, marry and show their talents. Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance embodies the ancient music and dance culture, and carries many cultural information and primitive memories of Yi people’s production and life. The Xianzi dance of the Yi people inherits, maintains and continues a large number of primitive farming etiquette, festival customs, and national costumes.
The important value of the string dance of the Yi people in Qiubei
At present, the Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance is not only popular in Yi villages, but also in all towns and towns, urban areas, communities, streets and alleys. This dance has become a national folk dance in the county. The rise, popularization and development of Xianzi Dance have promoted the harmonious development of economic society and rural culture. The Xianzi Dance reflects the living environment of the Yi people in the Qiubei area at that time, the low level of productivity development and the simple folk customs of the Yi people. It reflects the rugged, unrestrained and capable Yi people in production and life, and their heroic struggle against nature. Spiritual features play an irreplaceable role in studying the development of Yi nationality's history and culture. Promoting and developing the Yituxianzi dance is of great practical significance for enhancing national cohesion and enhancing national unity. Since the development of the tourism industry in Qiubei, the Dragon Sacrifice Festival (February 2), Torch Festival, Hualian Festival, Chili Festival, and the Yi Xianzi Dance are one of the mass cultural activities that can best demonstrate the regional and ethnic characteristics of Qiubei ethnic culture. .
Inheritance and development
Qiubei County successively organized experts to conduct in-depth investigations and researches on Xianzi of the Yi ethnic group, and these tasks are still ongoing. Since 1980, the County Cultural Center has collected and sorted out Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance and related audio-visual materials. "Yi Xianzi Dance" was incorporated into "Wenshan Ethnic Folk Dance Integration-Qiubei Volume", and the Cultural Center compiled the "Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance Music Score" ". In the past five years, Qiubei County Cultural Center and Yi Society have jointly organized Yi Xianzi training classes every year in order to better protect and promote the Yi Xianzi tones and dance moves in Qiubei County. Students are drawn from various Yi villages and concentrated in the county. 4 people including Yang Shuliang and Zhang Fengqing, the representative inheritors of the local Yi nationality string were hired to teach various Yi nationality string tones and playing skills. There are more than 100 trainees participating in each session, and there are currently more than 1,000 urban and rural Yi Xianzi lovers who have participated in Yi Xianzi training. As a dance style with a broad mass base, Qiubei Yi Xianzi Dance has been excavated and sorted out by professionals many times. In recent years, the award-winning works refined and processed by Xianzi Dance include "Dance of Lanterns", "Qin Zhongqing", "Xian Step Flying", "Bo Ren Dancing Music", "Abo Table" and so on. In August 2009, the "Thousands of People Jumping Strings and Thousands of People Wiping Faces" organized by the county government was held at Jiaolian Square in Qiubei County. The Thousands of Strings Dance was the highlight. 13,413 people successfully challenged and set a Guinness World Record. It can be said that "the tens of thousands of people wiped their faces, the strings of a thousand people played, and the music of the faces was prosperous, showing unity and harmony."
4. Paper umbrella making skills of Zhuang nationality
Approved in 2017, the Qiubei Zhuang Water Bamboo Flower Umbrella is named after the local high-quality water bamboo and high-quality cotton paper are used as materials. In Xiangyang Village, where the sand branch of the Zhuang ethnic group lives in Guanzhai Township, Qiubei, there is an 86-year-old man named Zhang Ronghua, who still inherits the skill of making water bamboo and paper umbrellas by hand. According to the old man, the craftsmanship of making water bamboo and paper umbrellas passed down by his ancestors has been passed on for more than a dozen generations and has a history of more than 200 years. In 2016, the craftsmanship of water bamboo and paper umbrellas made by the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County was listed as an intangible cultural heritage protection project in Yunnan Province.
The production materials are mainly local water bamboo, white cotton paper, tung oil and noodle paste, color materials, silk thread, etc. The local water bamboo has strong toughness and elasticity, and it is an excellent material for making water bamboo paper umbrella frame and umbrella bone. The production process mainly includes more than 80 fine and cumbersome crafts such as selecting materials, sawing bamboo, planing green, winding umbrella rings, printing, threading, and applying tung oil.
The water bamboo paper umbrella is rooted in the farming life of the Zhuang nationality. The umbrella surface has rich printing patterns, fresh and elegant, simple and nostalgic, exquisite and beautiful. It contains a strong cultural atmosphere of the Zhuang nationality and has high ornamental value, practical value and collection value .
5. Sheepskin drum of the Yi people
Approved in 2017.
In the area of Guzu Village, Lijiazhuang Village Committee, Badaoshao Township, Qiubei County, there is a dance called sheepskin dance. Whenever a grand sacrificial activity is held in the village, a sheepskin dance performance is performed. Dozens of men gather around the open field, with many patterns painted on their naked torso, brown leaves tied around their waists, and leaves on their heads. Under the accompaniment of a drum instrument made of sheepskin, they bowed their waists and waved their hands and danced. They danced and reveled, and from time to time they yelled "Oh, oh, oh,". This dance is primitive and ancient, with a very mysterious color.
According to legend, a long time ago, there was a village nearby. In the village, there were only two brothers in the family, and the two brothers were married. As the saying goes: "The tree branched off, the National People's Congress divided the family." One day at dinner, the elder brother said to his younger brother: "Second, you are also married. You should live your own life. Let's separate." The honest brother Said: "Brother, I listen to you." So they divided their families.
The eldest brother had a deep heart, so he divided the good land and most of the property to himself, and only divided some of the poor land and a small part of the property to his younger brother. After the younger brother moved out, due to the barren land and hard work for a year, he harvested very little food. Before the New Year, there was no food in the pot. The family stopped cooking. Year after year, his brother’s family was impoverished. . I had to use leaves to hide my shame, wild vegetables and wild fruits to satisfy my hunger.
One day, the younger brother was hungry, so he went to the wild to find wild fruits to eat. He came to one place and saw a wild yellow prickly tree full of yellow prickly fruit. The hungry brother drooled. , He hurriedly picked Huangpao Guo, after eating for a long time, his stomach was finally filled. So he rested under a big tree and fell asleep unconsciously.
Just when he was snoring like thunder and entering a wonderful dreamland, a group of monkeys passed by here. This group of monkeys lived on the opposite cliff. On that day, the monkeys were thirsty and wanted to find water in a nearby pond. They just saw their sleeping brother. The group of monkeys thought that his brother had died of hunger and thirst. He lifted him hurriedly and went straight to the cliff. On the way, a group of magpies were also attracted, "chittering" and jumping up and down, dancing a sad dance for his brother. The monkeys tried every means to carry their brother into the cave on the cliff.
This cave is larger than the three houses in the village, and it is spacious and bright. There are many things in it, especially gold and silver treasures. There are piles of gold and silver treasures in the crevices and stone ditch. These gold and silver treasures may be monkeys to the rich. Stolen. Once, when the monkeys were going to steal something, they saw that this family was dead, and some people put many sacrifices in the style of gold and silver treasures in front of the coffin.
After the monkeys returned to the cave, they imitated the family. An old monkey pretended to be dead, and the other monkeys moved in with the stolen gold and silver treasures and started sacrificial activities. The group of monkeys hopped around and played around.
On this day, they saw his brother sleeping under the big tree, thinking it was a dead person, so they simply carried his brother to the cave to play. They moved in and brought in gold and silver treasures and piled them around his brother. At the beginning of the memorial ceremony, the monkeys sang and danced around. 3 bowls of gold bars and silver bars, 3 bowls of gold bars and silver bars, 3 bowls of gold bars and silver bars. , The third is to eat fried beans, and the fourth is to go around flowers.
The younger brother was awakened by the singing and dancing of the monkeys. He softened his eyes and saw that it was a group of monkeys. He stood up and yelled at the monkeys three times. His cry scared the monkeys to run around. The younger brother saw that the open space was full of gold and silver bars, so he carried these gold and silver treasures home.
My younger brother used these gold and silver treasures to build a large tiled house, bought a lot of good land, and became a well-known rich man. The elder brother was very jealous of his younger brother's rich life, and he was unwilling to lead a casual life on his own, so he asked why. The younger brother truthfully told his brother the truth. The greedy brother had a wishful thinking, so he imitated his younger brother's appearance and slept in a place where monkeys frequented every day. Sure enough, one day they met this group of monkeys, and the monkeys carried him into the cliff cave. , Just when he reached the cliff, his brother couldn’t help but let go of a fart. The monkeys shook their heads so badly. The monkeys thought that his brother was already dead, and he had already begun to rot, so he fell to his death from the cliff. .
From then on, in Yijia villages, whenever an old man passed away, “people use horns, drums, and gongs as props and imitate monkeys to pay homage to the younger brother” to mourn the deceased, in order to express the peace of the dead. Peaceful. In this way, it has been passed down from generation to generation, forming the well-known Yi family sheepskin drum.