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Miao

  • Categories:National customs
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  • Time of issue:2020-10-17 11:10
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(Summary description)The Zhuang nationality is an ancient nation, developed from the ancient Baiyue branch. "Liao" and "Pu" are ancient ancestors. During the Han and Jin Dynasties, the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality had lived and multiplied in Wenshan and Qiubei. After the Song Dynasty, more and more Zhuang people migrated from other

Miao

(Summary description)The Zhuang nationality is an ancient nation, developed from the ancient Baiyue branch. "Liao" and "Pu" are ancient ancestors. During the Han and Jin Dynasties, the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality had lived and multiplied in Wenshan and Qiubei. After the Song Dynasty, more and more Zhuang people migrated from other

  • Categories:National customs
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2020-10-17 11:10
  • Views:
Information

  1. Historical origin

  The Zhuang nationality is an ancient nation, developed from the ancient Baiyue branch. "Liao" and "Pu" are ancient ancestors. During the Han and Jin Dynasties, the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality had lived and multiplied in Wenshan and Qiubei. After the Song Dynasty, more and more Zhuang people migrated from other places and settled in Qiubei. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, wars and disasters were frequent, and a large number of strong people flowed into Qiubei from outside the province.

  The Zhuang people have lived in the subtropical Pingba River Valley with warm climate, abundant rainfall and fertile land for generations. The ancestors of the Zhuang nationality created a brilliant rice culture, a barn-style architectural culture, a bronze drum culture, a textile and clothing culture, and a food culture with distinctive features and far-reaching influence.

  2, religious belief

  Yunnan Zhuang people generally believe that all things have animism, and believe in a mixture of nature worship, ancestor worship, totem worship, hero worship and polytheism worship. There are many rituals of various gods and gods of the Zhuang nationality every year. In addition to the collective sacrifices in villages such as offering long, offering dragons, offering sacrifices to the sky, offering sacrifices to fields, offering sacrifices to bronze drums, most Zhuang families also enshrine the position of "kingdom of heaven and earth (nation)" With the ancestors and gods, you can pay homage to them at any time.

 

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  3. Qiubei Rock Paintings

  The Zhuang people have been able to sing, dance, write and paint since ancient times. As early as the Stone Age, the "Neihong" matriarchal clan society of the Zhuang nationality used red mineral pigments that symbolize life to create prehistoric rock paintings on the rock walls. Wenshan and Qiubei prehistoric petroglyphs are extensive and rich, and there are Puge petroglyphs, Heiqinglong petroglyphs, Shizishan petroglyphs, and Honghuashan petroglyphs in Qiubei.

  4. Bronze Drums of the Zhuang Nationality-Sacrifice Drums for the New Year

  Bronze drum is a percussion instrument created by the Puyue people in ancient China. It has a history of more than 2,700 years. At first, the bronze drum was used as a drinking vessel (kettle) and gradually evolved into a percussion instrument. The ancient Puyue people (ancestors of the Zhuang nationality) regarded bronze drums as artifacts and worshipped them. Today, many Zhuang villages still enshrine bronze drums. During festival celebrations, they must sacrifice bronze drums, drink bronze drum wine and dance drum dances.

  5. Clothing culture

  There are many branches of the Zhuang ethnic group. The Qiubei Zhuang ethnic group mainly belongs to the agricultural, sand, and soil branches of the Zhuang ethnic group. The traditional clothing of each branch is mainly black, blue, and blue regardless of men’s and women’s clothing. Women’s clothing has short waist and long coats. Skirts are mostly made of Zhuang brocade fabrics and are made with Zhuang embroidery; adult men generally wear double-breasted tops, wide-length pants, and self-made cloth shoes. Young men like to hang silk on both ends of their headscarf. Among the traditional women’s clothing of various branches, the traditional short-clothes and pleated skirts of the Zhuang ethnic group in Qiubei are the most dazzling. The production is exquisite and luxurious. The brocade and embroidery are colorful, the patterns are vivid and lively. , There was silver light in the sun, and the sound of silver ornaments was very pleasant while moving.

  Zhuang women have always liked to wear all kinds of silver jewelry. There are many kinds of Zhuang silver jewelry, mainly silver combs, silver hairpins, earrings, collars, necklaces, breasts, rings, silver bracelets, etc. With gorgeous festive costumes, it looks graceful and gorgeous. The silver bracelets of Zhuang girls are not only ornaments, but also a token of love, symbolizing pure love.

  Zhuang is one of the first ethnic groups to learn to weave. Almost every household of the Zhuang family living in Qiubei has a self-made loom, and Zhuang women know how to weave. Zhuang costumes are mostly associated with colorful Zhuang brocade, weaving, cross-cutting, brocade, embroidery, vivid patterns, rigorous structure and colorful colors. Zhuang brocade is one of the four famous brocades in China, and it was a tribute to the royal family in history.

  6. music and dance festival

  The Zhuang people are "good songs", and Zhuang Township has the reputation of "gehai". The poetry culture of the Zhuang nationality is very rich, including ancient songs, ritual songs, love songs, pan songs, festival songs, house-building songs, fishermen's songs, agricultural songs, textile songs, tea songs, etc. The expressions are diverse, simple and natural, and strong in the rustic flavor. The traditional musical instruments of the Zhuang nationality include Bau, bronze drums, horse bone hu, gourd hu, gourd sheng, and Konoha.

  Various sacrificial activities of the Zhuang people are frequent, and the dance of entertaining the gods and rewarding the gods (witch dance) has become an indispensable procedure for the sacrificial ceremonies of the Zhuang people, which greatly promoted the development of Zhuang dance. According to statistics, there are dozens of traditional dances of the Zhuang nationality. The famous ones include bronze drum dance, pole dance, handkerchief dance, hydrangea dance, shrimp fishing dance, peach leaf dance, and Banhong dance.

 

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  "March 3" Flower Street Festival: March 3 will be held for 3 days. First, the villages will hold grand festivals, then beating gongs and drums, lion dances and dragons, walking through villages, exorcising evil spirits, praying for good weather, and organizing Large-scale singing and dancing, Zhuang opera and martial arts performances. During the festival, young men and women of the Zhuang ethnic group also used antiphonal songs, bumping eggs, throwing hydrangea, and mutual gifts to find friends. As a rice-growing people, the Zhuang people place great emphasis on the farming season. "March 3" is a festival in itself to pass on the agricultural season. The "March 3" rituals such as offering sacrifices to the long, worshiping earth mothers, and distributing official seeds remind all Zhuang people to "three After having fun on the 3rd, you must concentrate on production.

  Spring Festival: It is the most solemn festival of the Zhuang nationality. Zongba is a must-have food for the Zhuang nationality during the Spring Festival. There is a saying that "there is no zongba during the Spring Festival, and it is not a Zhuang family." On the first day of the New Year, there is a custom of grabbing fresh water in the early morning.

  Taste the new festival: When the rice is ripe in the eighth and nineth lunar calendar, each village chooses one day to celebrate the festival. Pour out the rice from the first basket of new rice that has just been harvested from the field, and put the first pot of new rice together with chicken, fish and fruits on the table, and light incense paper to present the ancestors. After the sacrifice, first scoop a bowl of new rice and mix with some meat, so that the dog will eat first, and the family will taste the first meal of new rice. It is said that the grain was brought by the dog. To thank for its contribution, the Zhuang family feeds the dog every time they taste new rice. Many places do not eat dog meat, which is why.

  7. Zhuang villages and rice culture

  The layout of the traditional Zhuang villages is obviously influenced by the rice culture. Special emphasis is placed on the layout of "a sloping water in front of the village and tens of thousands of mountains behind the village". The village is located on a hillside with mountains and rivers, and try not to occupy paddy fields and farmland. The dwellings are built on the slope, layered from top to bottom, layered on top of each other, row upon row, very spectacular. The houses are connected by a stone path, which is conducive to lighting, ventilation and fire prevention.

  The dwellings of the Zhuang nationality still maintain the basic characteristics of the dry-pen or semi-dry-pen buildings with the upper floors and the upper and lower livestock. This kind of housing is a typical residence of the ancient Baiyue ethnic group. It is suitable for humid and rainy, hot summer and uneven terrain. Southern slopes. The life in the house is centered on the firepit, where three meals a day are taken by the firepit. The shrine is placed on the central axis of the entire house. The front hall is used to hold celebrations and social activities, the wing rooms on both sides live, and the back hall is the living area.

  The Baiyue ethnic group is the first people in the world to cultivate rice artificially, and its rice cultivation has a history of nearly 9,000 years. As a descendant of Baiyue, the Zhuang is one of the earliest peoples in the world to cultivate rice. For thousands of years, the ancestors of the Zhuang people have created a rich culture of "Na". "Na" is called rice field in Zhuang language. There are 518 villages named after "Na" in Wenshan Prefecture alone. Paddy farming and irrigation are the first. For this reason, Zhuang ancestors invented cranes, keel carts and other water-lifting tools, and attached great importance to the construction of agricultural infrastructure. The Longquan Canal "Bridgeback Water" stone arch bridge built by the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County is 318 meters long and consumes more than 20,000 cubic meters of stone. The project lasted nine years. After the completion of the water supply in the fifty-ninth year of the Qing Dynasty (1794), 120,000 mu of wasteland has been transformed into fertile land, which is still in use today, and is the largest water conservancy project in ancient Yunnan Province.

  The long history of rice farming has had a profound impact on the life etiquette, national character and deep psychology of the Zhuang people. Due to farming, there are traditional festivals such as the Ox King Festival, March 3rd, and the New Rice Festival. Various life etiquettes are full of cultural connotations of rice cultivation, and there are also life proverbs such as "love rice and check the fields, love your wife and mother-in-law" .

  8. Intangible cultural heritage of Yunnan Province-Qiubei Zhuang water bamboo paper umbrella

  holding a water bamboo umbrella, alone

  hesitating is beautiful, beautiful

  the intoxicating Puzhehei,

  I hope to meet

  like a lotus

  A girl of the Zhuang nationality with sorrow.

  Qiubei Zhuang Water Bamboo Umbrella is named because it uses local high-quality water bamboo and fine cotton paper as materials. In Xiangyang Village, where the sand branch of the Zhuang ethnic group lives in Guanzhai Township, Qiubei, there is an 86-year-old man named Zhang Ronghua, who still inherits the skill of making water bamboo and paper umbrellas by hand. According to the old man, the craftsmanship of making water bamboo and paper umbrellas passed down by his ancestors has been passed on for more than a dozen generations and has a history of more than 200 years. In 2016, the craftsmanship of water bamboo and paper umbrellas made by the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County was listed as an intangible cultural heritage protection project in Yunnan Province.

  Making materials are mainly local water bamboo, white cotton paper, tung oil and noodle paste, color material, silk thread, etc. The local water bamboo has strong toughness and elasticity, and it is an excellent material for making water bamboo paper umbrella frame and umbrella bone. The production process mainly includes more than 80 fine and cumbersome crafts such as selecting materials, sawing bamboo, planing green, winding umbrella rings, printing, threading, and applying tung oil.

  The water bamboo paper umbrella is rooted in the farming life of the Zhuang nationality. The umbrella surface has rich printing patterns, fresh and elegant, simple and nostalgic, exquisite and beautiful. It contains a strong cultural atmosphere of the Zhuang nationality and has high ornamental value, practical value and collection value .

  9. Intangible cultural heritage of Yunnan Province Qiubei Zhuang fire grass quilt

  According to reports, as early as the early Ming Dynasty, people of the Zhuang ethnic group made fire grass quilts in Qiubei. Yunnan does not produce cotton. The diligent and intelligent women of the Qiubei Zhuang family use "fire grass," a sweet herb plant called "mantail" in Zhuang language, for cotton.

  Fire grass leaves are picked from the mountains in August each year. The collected fire grass leaves are rinsed with water and placed in a dustpan. Then, while the moisture is not dry, the leaves are picked from the roots and feet to remove the cotton-like parts intact. Next, one by one, rub the fireweed thread on the thigh of even thickness, and then wrap it into a thread after it has dried. When weaving firegrass quilt, use twine as warp thread, and use firegrass thread to shuttle back and forth on the twine. The twine used for weaving firegrass quilt is also made of locally grown hemp. The process of making the hemp thread is more complicated. After more than a dozen processes, such as cutting hemp, removing the skin, removing the outer skin, twisting the thread, rubbing the thread, boiling the thread (using plant ash), washing the thread, and drying it, it can be put on the shelf. To weave a fire grass quilt, it takes about two to three months and more than ten fire grass leaves.

  Fireweed used to be used as a dowry and daily necessities, but now it has been replaced by quilts. The most complete fireweed weaving skills is undoubtedly in Xiaoxilong Village, Jinping Town, Qiubei County. In August 2009, the fire grass of the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County was named the second batch of intangible cultural heritage of Yunnan Province by the People's Government of Yunnan Province and the Provincial Department of Culture. He Meifen, who was born in Xiaoxilong Village, Mubai Village Committee, Pingzhai Township, Qiubei County in June 1951, is the inheritor of the fire grass quilt of the Zhuang nationality in Qiubei County. She is recognized locally as a master of "fire grass quilt" weaving. Boldly innovate on the basis of the traditional fireweed quilt, dye the fireweed thread into colored (red, blue, purple, yellow, green, etc.) with the vegetable dyes of the Zhuang "March 3" dyed rice. Arranged in a certain order, weaving a variety of continuous patterns, simple and elegant, full of change. Fireweed is spun from pure natural plants through traditional craftsmanship, and it has continued the integrity and authenticity of history. It is an example of the origin and evolution of life products (quilts) that protect the body from the cold in the early days. It is not only a practical handicraft, but also a carrier of the traditional culture of the Zhuang nationality. It embodies the wisdom of the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality.

  10. Zhuang Brocade-Intangible Cultural Heritage

  The women of the Zhuang nationality have created a wonderful craft-Zhuang brocade. Zhuang brocade, Yun brocade, Shu brocade, and Song brocade are listed as the four famous brocades in my country. In 2006, with the approval of the State Council, Zhuang Brocade was included in the National Intangible Cultural Heritage List.

  Zhuang brocade can be divided into two types, brocade and embroidery, each with its own characteristics. Embroidered brocade is the icing on the brocade by embroidering patterns on native cloth or brocade. Embroidery techniques are varied and can be divided into flat embroidery, cut and paste embroidery, pick embroidery, overwrap embroidery, silk button embroidery, cloth patch embroidery and other techniques. .

  The Zhuang Brocade is colorful, beautiful in design, ingenious in conception, profound in meaning, and original in creativity, such as the early Zhuang Brocade with straps on sexual intercourse, birth, and prosperity of people; rice field, frog eating the moon, bird, fish, and three objects. Flying saucer pictures, fish pictures, rooster pictures, cat pictures, sun, coin pictures, Zhuang clothing and Zhuang waist patterns, etc., show the Zhuang people's harmonious development concept with nature and the pursuit of a peaceful and ecological aesthetic.

  The early Zhuang brocade straps, this kind of composition can be traced back to the creative intention of the Puge rock paintings in Qiubei County. The Puge rock paintings were produced in the Neolithic Age. At that time, the ancestors competed with the beasts for survival in the harsh natural environment and prayed for the people. The desire to thrive became the core idea of ​​the group, and the ancestors painted this idea as auspicious picture on the rock wall. The Puge rock paintings looked like cirrus moire at first glance. Through comparative research, it was discovered that the ancestors painted abstract pictures of male and female intercourse, pictures of birth, and prosperity of people, which were idols of the time. The patterns of the Zhuang brocade straps in the early Zhuang nationality followed the expressive techniques and composition concepts of Puge rock paintings, and the patterns expressed the core ideas of praying for prosperity.

  11, Zhuang cuisine

  Qiubei Nanqiubei Zhuang people have many famous special dishes and flavor snacks.

  Flower rice, also called five-color glutinous rice. It is made by soaking glutinous rice into maple leaf juice, purple blue grass juice, red grass juice, and yellow flower juice. Different glutinous rice is dyed black, purple, red, and yellow, plus the natural color ( Namely white) steamed. The colorful rice is brightly colored and fragrant and refreshing. Flower rice is a traditional seasonal food of the Zhuang nationality and has a history of hundreds of years. Every holiday, relatives and friends will exchange flower rice, blessings to celebrate the holiday.

  Horse-foot pole is a special food of Wenshan Zhuang nationality. It is made of glutinous rice with bacon shreds, brown sugar juice and seasoning. The zong leaves are bundled and cooked. It is named after its shape like a horse's foot. It is fragrant and delicious.

  Roast suckling pig is a famous dish of the Zhuang nationality in Yunnan. It uses unweaned piglets (about 4 kg). After slaughtering, the pig cavity is opened and flattened and air-dried before roasting. When roasting until the pigskin turns yellow, wipe the pigskin with dilute honey water and sesame oil successively, rubbing and roasting until the skin is golden and shiny, and the sound is crisp. When the suckling pig is served on the table, first lay the suckling pig on a plate, cut the skin into a rectangular shape, and then cut the pork through the knife, dipped in white vinegar garlic sauce or sweet and sour sauce. The skin color is golden red, full of luster, thin and crispy, tender and delicious, rich in fragrance, but not greasy.

  Bahan chicken is also a unique flavor dish of the Zhuang nationality in Wenshan Prefecture. “Bahan” is the Zhuang language, that is, sour soup. Bahan Chicken is a hot pot cooked with Zhuangjia’s special sour soup and added various fresh vegetables and vegetables. Bahan chicken has a strange sour taste, sweet and delicious, oily but not greasy, appetizing and refreshing.

  Qiubei Zhuang people’s special dishes include offering sacrifices to the dragon, raking the rake, roasting dried rice, boiled sauerkraut with small fish, and boiled pork feet with herbs.

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